Mad People's Own History

Course Description, HPS 317H1Y
May - August, 2000

This course will provide an overview of the history of madness from the point of view of people who were, and are, deemed mad, from ancient times to the present. The term "mad-people" refers to any person who was considered insane, or seriously mentally disturbed, by their contemporaries. This includes people who were confined in institutions and people who remained in the community. Different terms throughout history, like "mad people," will be discussed for what it says about the individuals who used this language, and about the people these terms are meant to describe. Accounts by mad-people will be examined from a variety of sources, primarily in the form of written narratives. There will also be references to first-person perspectives of madness in paintings, theatre, films and poetry. Gender, race, class and ability will be discussed throughout the course, with one week devoted to an overview of how these factors have influenced first-person accounts. The purpose of this course is to place the diverse perspectives of people who have been diagnosed as mad, insane or mentally ill as being of central importance in the history of psychiatry and to addressing the question: how has madness been viewed by mad-people over the centuries?

1. Introduction: Why History from the Perspectives of Mad-People?
2. Accounts of Madness in the Ancient and Medieval World
3. First-Person Accounts of Madness from the 17th - 19th Centuries
4. The Rise of the Asylum and Its Importance in First-Person Accounts of Madness
5. Gender, Race, Class and Ability in First-Person Accounts of Madness
6. Activism and Advocacy: Horror Stories and Historical Allegories in First-Person Accounts of Madness During the 20th Century
7. Activism and Advocacy: From Hurt to Hope in First-Person Accounts of Madness During the 20th Century
8. Butterfly Wards and Soul Survivors: First Person Accounts of Madness in Canada since the 1970s
9. Artistic Expression and the Troubled Soul
10. Making the Links: Popular Culture and Cross Disability Stigmatization
11. Media Madness, First-Person Accounts and Mental Health Policies since the 1970s
12. Past and Present: History and Perspectives by Mad People into the 21st Century

Course format:

One double-spaced, typed 5 page book review, due Tuesday, July 4 (15%)
One double-spaced, typed 12-15 page essay, due at the last class, Tuesday, August 8 (40%)
Two-hour final exam, 2 essay questions (30%)
Class participation and attendance (15%)

Course Instructor:

Geoffrey Reaume, Ph.D. Office: IHPST, Old Victoria College, Room 308
Phone: (416)-978-5020; Email: geofffrey.reaume@utoronto.ca

Office Hours:

Tuesday and Wednesday, 10 A.M. - 5 P.M. or by appointment.
Please note that office hours the last of week of June are Monday June 26 and Tuesday, June 27, 10 A.M. - 5 P.M. for this week only.

Mad People's Own History
Reading List - HPS 317H1 S
May - August 2000

1. Introduction: Why History from the Perspectives of Mad People?
Reader:

William Belcher, "Address to Humanity: Containing, a Letter to Dr. Thomas Monro: A Receipt to Make a Lunatic, and Seize his Estate; and a Sketch of a True Smiling Hyena, 1796" in Voices of Madness: Four Pamphlets, 1683-1796. Ed. Allan Ingram. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1997: 129-135.
Anonymous. "Illustrations of Insanity Furnished by the Letters and Writings of the Insane," American Journal of Insanity 4 (1848): 290-303.
Allan Beveridge, "Life in the Asylum: Patients' Letters from Morningside, 1873-1908," History of Psychiatry 9:4 (December, 1998): 431-468.
(56 pages)

2. Accounts of Madness in the Ancient and Medieval World
Reader:

M.A. Screech, "Good Madness in Christendom," in The Anatomy of Madness, Volume I Eds., W.F. Bynum, R. Porter, M. Shepherd. London: Tavistock, 1985: 25-39.
Margery Kempe, "The Book of Margery Kempe", in Dale Peterson, ed. A Mad People's History of Madness. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982: 3-18.
Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Trans. R. Howard. New York: Vintage Books, 1965, 1988: 65-84.
H. C. Erik Midelfort, A History of Madness in Sixteenth-Century Germany . Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1999: 277-321.
(93 pages)

3. First-Person Accounts of Madness from the 17th - 19th Centuries
Reader:

Hannah Allen, "A Narrative of God's Gracious Dealings With That Choice Christian Mrs. Hannah Allen, 1683," in Voices of Madness: Four Pamphlets, 1683-1796. Ed. Allan Ingram. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1997: 1-21.
Anne Finch, "Poems" (1713) in Patterns of Madness in the Eighteenth Century: A Reader Allan Ingram, Ed. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1998: 54-62.
Dale Peterson, ed. A Mad People's History of Madness. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1982: 19-38, 64-73.
Jeffrey L. Geller, Maxine Harris, eds. Women of the Asylum: Voices from Behind the Walls, New York: Anchor Books, 1994: 58-85.
Nicholas Hervey, "Advocacy or Folly: The Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society, 1845-63,"Medical History 30:3 (July, 1986): 245-275.
(115 pages)

4. The Rise of the Asylum and Its Importance in First-Person Accounts of Madness
Required Book:

Geoffrey Reaume, Remembrance of Patients Past: Patient Life at the Toronto Hospital for the Insane, 1870-1940. Toronto: Oxford University Press Canada, 2000: Chapters 3 - 7 (pages 54-243).5. Gender, Race, Class and Ability in First-Person Accounts of Madness

Reader:

John S. Hughes, ed. The Letters of A Victorian Madwoman [Andrew M. Sheffield] University of South Carolina Press, 1993: 45-91.
Lykke de la Cour, "'She thinks this is the Queen's castle': Women Patients' Perceptions of an Ontario Psychiatric Hospital," Health & Place 3:2 (June, 1997): 131-141.
Marta Caminero-Sanangelo, The Madwoman Can't Speak: Or Why Insanity Is Not Subversive. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1998: 18-51.
Jonathan Sadowsky, "The Confinement of Isaac O.: A Case of 'Acute Mania' in Colonial Nigeria," in History of Psychiatry 7:1 (March, 1996): 91-112.
Roland Littlewood and Maurice Lipsedge, Aliens and Alienists: Ethnic Minorities and Psychiatry . London: Unwin Hyman, 1989: 32-60.
(138 pages)

6. Activism and Advocacy: Horror Stories and Historical Allegories in First-Person Accounts of Madness During the 20th Century
Required Book:

Sherry Hirsch, et. al. Madness Network News Reader. San Francisco: Glide Publications, 1974: 18-154.

Reader:

Mel Starkman, "The Movement" Phoenix Rising: The Voice of the Psychiatrized. 2:3 (December, 1981): A2-A15.
Lenny Lapon, Mass Murderers in White Coats: Psychiatric Genocide in Nazi Germany and the United States. Springfield, Massachusetts: Psychiatric Genocide Research Institute, 1986: 159-216.
Michael Burleigh, "Psychiatry, German Society and the Nazi 'Euthanasia' Programme,"Social History of Medicine 7:2 (August, 1994): 213-228.
Edward Shorter, A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997: 272-287.
(102 pages in reader)

7. Activism and Advocacy: From Hurt to Hope in First-Person Accounts of Madness During the 20th Century
Reader:

Clifford Beers, A Mind That Found Itself: An Autobiography. New York: Doubleday, 1908, 1953: 62-77.
Judi Chamberlin, On Our Own: Patient Controlled Alternatives to the Mental-Health System. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1978: 87-105.
Carol North, Welcome Silence: My Triumph Over Schizophrenia. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987: 9-12, 287-316.
Bonnie Burstow, "A History of Psychiatric Homophobia," Phoenix Rising: The Voice of the Psychiatrized 8:3&4 (July, 1990): S38-S39.
Barbara Everett, "Something is Happening: The Contemporary Consumer and Psychiatric Survivor Movement in Historical Context," The Journal of Mind and Behavior 15:1&2 (Winter and Spring 1994): 55-70.
Norman Dain, "Psychiatry and Anti-Psychiatry in the United States" in Discovering The History of Psychiatry. Eds. M. Micale, R. Porter, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994: 415-444.
Lilith Finkler, "Psychiatric Survivor Pride Day: Community Organizing with Psychiatric Survivors" Osgoode Hall Law Journal 35:3&4 (Fall and Winter, 1997): 763-772.
(118 pages in reader)

8. Butterfly Wards and Soul Survivors: First Person Accounts of Madness in Canada since the 1970s
Required Book:

Wendy Funk, "What DiffErenCe Does IT Make?" (The Journey of a Soul Survivor) . Cranbrook, B.C: Wild Flower Publishing, 1998: Entire 169 page book.

Reader:
Margaret Gibson, The Butterfly Ward. Toronto: Harper Collins, 1976, 1994: 148-167.
Bonnie Burstow & Don Weitz, eds. Shrink Resistant: The Struggle Against Psychiatry in Canada. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1988: 111-127.
(35 pages in reader)

9. Artistic Expression and The Troubled Soul
Reader:

L.C. G. "Eastertide." [A patient at the Hospital for the Insane, Brockville, Ontario] Bulletin of the Ontario Hospitals for the Insane 6:3 (April, 1913): 177-178.
John Webster, "Litigious or Querulous Paranoia." Bulletin of the Ontario Hospitals for the Insane 9:3 (April, 1916): 57-63.
Sander Gilman, Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to AIDS. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988: 98-126.
Various authors and artists. Beyond Reason: Art and Psychosis: Work from the Prinzhorn Collection. London: Hayward Gallery, 1996: 84-92, 125-130, 163, 187.
Virginia Aronson, Different Minds, Different Voices Boca Raton, Florida: Paradux & Gossling Inc., 1996: 20-25.
(57 pages)

(There is a possibility of a presentation from a theatre group or a video during this class).

10. Making the Links: Popular Culture and Cross Disability Stigmatization
Required Book;

Ruth Enns, A Voice Unheard: The Latimer Case and People with Disabilities. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 1999: Entire 176 page book.

Reader:

Robert Bogdan, Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988: 119-146.
Tracy Odell, "Disability and Relationships." Canadian Woman Studies 13:4 (Summer, 1993): 56-58.
Lynda Jacko, My Life Has Been A Gift from God. Guelph: Sharing to Learn, 1997: 4-12.
Richard Cairney, "'Democracy was never intended for degenerates': Alberta's Flirtation with Eugenics Comes back to Haunt it," Canadian Medical Association Journal 155:6 (September 15, 1996): 789-792.
(42 pages in reader)

11. Media Madness, First-Person Accounts and Mental Health Policies since the 1970s
Reader:

Otto F. Wahl, Media Madness: Public Images of Mental Illness (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1995: 56-86.
E. Fuller Torrey, "Taking Issue: 'Psychiatric Survivors' and Non-Survivors," Psychiatric Services 48:2 (February 1997): 143.
" Taking Issue with Taking Issue: 'Psychiatric Survivors' Reconsidered" Psychiatric Services 48:5 (May, 1997): 601-605 (letters to the editor).
- Various newspaper and periodical articles
(46 pages)

12. Past and Present: History and Perspectives by Mad People into the 21st Century
Required book:

Sherry Hirsch, et. al. Madness Network News Reader. San Francisco: Glide Publications, 1974: 155-186.
Reader:
L.J. Davis, "The Encyclopedia of Insanity: A psychiatric handbook lists a madness for everyone." Harper's Magazine (February, 1997): 61-66.
- Various newspaper and periodical articles
(26 pages in reader)